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Advanced Encryption Standard

This is an encryption method used to secure communications or files. It is very hard to crack; to the extent that the U.S. Government use it for top secret documents.


Alt Tag

The alt tag is a label describing an image. It appears when the mouse is rolled over an image on a webpage (text within a small yellow window in Windows, white in Macs). It is particularly helpful for people who view pages in text-only mode and/or who have special software that converts the text to an audio equivalent.



Anonymous file transfer protocol

Abbreviation: anonymous FTP; AFTP. A system for using the standard FTP without requiring a user ID or password (see also FTP and SFTP).



Anti-virus software

Anti-virus software is used to scan files for possible rogue instructions (viruses) that may have been attached to them. These instructions, if run by an application, might perform unwanted actions.



Small Java programs that 'auto install' when browsing (given the browser has Java enabled). Applets are designed to run on any system. Unlike an application, applets cannot be executed directly from the operating system. Sun Microsystems certifies applets or applications written in 100% pure Java will run in all systems equipped with a Java Virtual Machine, not just in Microsoft Windows environments.



American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASCII is the standard method for encoding characters as 8-bit sequences of binary numbers, allowing a maximum of 256 characters. Text files are customarily called 'ASCII files'. ASCII also includes control characters such as carriage return and tab (see also Unicode).



Active Server Pages

ASP stands for Active Server Pages. A blend of traditional HTML and database server language. When a server accesses an active content page, the requested page is passed through the database server where the code is processed, and a new HTML page is generated. This page is then returned to the regular web server and sent on to the user.



A file which is 'attached' and sent as part of an e-mail message, e.g. much in the same way as one would attach a photo to a written letter with a paper clip.



Read-only attribute

Describes a file that may only be read and not changed, e.g. a files on a CD-ROM are by default read-only. This attribute can be assigned to most files or folders. A read-only file or folder cannot be modified or deleted, but a read-only folder may have its contents modified or deleted. If the device (e.g. CDROM) is not read-only in nature (e.g. a hard disk drive) then the read-only attribute may be removed to make the file or folder writeable if desired.


Archive attribute

The file has been marked by the operating system as an archive file. Applications or the operating system use this attribute to mark files ready for backup or removal. Every time a file is changed, or created, the file is marked with the archive attribute.


Hidden attribute

The file is hidden. It is not included in an ordinary directory listing. The hidden attribute is typically given to important operating system files, the reason being that they don’t normally need to be seen or changed by the user.


System attribute

The file is part of the operating system or is used exclusively by it. As with the hidden attribute, this is typically given to important operating system files.


Temporary attribute

The file is being used for temporary storage.


Offline attribute

The data of the file is not immediately available. This attribute indicates that the file data has been physically moved to offline storage, e.g. tape, CD or DVD storage.


Not indexed attribute (not content indexed)

The file will not be indexed by the Windows content indexing service.


Encrypted attribute

A Microsoft file-based encryption technology that enables users to encrypt files and folders on NTFS-formatted volumes. EFS helps protect the confidentiality of data by ensuring that only authorized users can decrypt the encrypted files or folders.


Compressed attribute

This attribute denotes that the file has been compressed by the operating system to make it generally much smaller than the original size. Supported by NTFS volumes (Windows NT and newer). The benefits are the saving of disk space and under certain conditions, increased speed of access.


Creation date attribute

This attribute specifies the original creation date and time of file or folder. When the file or folder is created / newly made, creation date and time are recorded in file system.


Last modified date attribute

Indicates at the file system level when the last time the file or folder was modified. When the file’s contents are modified or saved, the last modified date and time stamp is set to correspond with the time of those changes.


Last accessed date attribute

Indicates at the file system level when a file was last accessed. If the file is only opened for viewing, copying, moving, etc., the last accessed date is changed to when the operation took place.



Audio Video Interleave

AVI is a common format on the Internet for movies and videos (typically Windows based). Contrary to popular belief, an AVI file is simply a container for any number of different video formats (see also MPG).


Background Backup (SyncBack/SE/Pro)

The process of running a backup profile in the background, i.e. without user-intervention. Running profiles in the background is similar to running profiles via the Windows Task Scheduler, except SyncBack must be running for them to run. Also background profiles typically run much more frequently than scheduled tasks, e.g. every 30 minutes.



A Backup is where files are copied one-way from the Source to the Destination. The backup process prohibits files being copied the other way round (see also Mirror and Synchronize).



This is the maximum amount of data which can be carried at a given time by your Internet connection. Generally, the larger the bandwidth, the quicker data the data will be received or sent. Example: ADSL Broadband has a higher bandwidth than an analog modem.




A type of lossless graphic file format used to save a digital image containing a color value for each pixel in a picture. It is a simpler format than a JPEG or GIF (see also GIF, JPG and TIFF).


Boolean Search

A Boolean search is one formed by joining simple terms in a logical way with "AND", "OR" and "NOT". Boolean terms can also be expressed in symbols like "-" instead of "minus" or "+" instead of "plus".



An unintentional programming error that causes a program or computer system to perform erratically, produce incorrect results, or crash.



Burrows-Wheeler Transform

A compression algorithm used in BZip2 (see BZip2, Compression and Zip).



BZip2 is a compression technique. It compresses most files more effectively than more traditional GZip or Zip, but it is slower (see also BWT, Compression and Zip).


C and C++

These are both widely used computer programming languages.



A small area of fast memory provided to increase the effective speed of a large amount of slower memory. Your browser uses a 'cache' to store web pages and parts of web pages you have visited during a session. Instead of retrieving the page again from the Internet, your browser will get it faster from the cache.



Computer aided design

CAD is the process of using a computer to assist in the design process, usually by automating the production of drawings. CAD techniques are widely used in engineering and architecture.



Common Gateway Interface

CGI is the standard for running programs on a server from a Web page. Gateway programs,or scripts, are executable programs which can be run by themselves.



Originally from the UNIX world, CHMOD is used by FTP (File Transfer Protocol) programs for PC and Mac that allow the directory and file permissions to be changed over the Internet.


Character Set

The basic set of letters and symbols that a computer uses, or are included in a particular font.



Compression is the process of making a file smaller by using a complex algorithm of bit reduction (see also BWT, BZip2 and Zip).



A cookie is a small data file that certain web sites write to your hard drive when you visit them with your browser. A cookie file can contain information such as a user ID that the site uses to track the pages you have visited. The only personal information a cookie can contain is information you supply yourself. A cookie can't read data off your hard disk or read cookie files created by other sites.



Cascading Style Sheets

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) refers to a style 'language' used by web designers to define presentational aspects of a web document (typeface, background, text, link colors, margin controls, and the placement of objects on a web page).



A collection of data that is organized so that its contents can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.



Delphi is a programming language and software development environment. It is produced by Embarcadero (formerly CodeGear, formerly Inprise, and originally Borland). The Delphi language, formerly known as Object Pascal (Pascal with object-oriented extensions) originally targeted only Microsoft Windows, but now also builds native applications for Linux and the Microsoft .NET framework.



The Destination is where files and directories are copied to in a backup profile (they are copied from the Source). In a synchronize profile the destination can generically be thought of as the "right side".


Differences Window (SyncBack products)

During a profile run, the Differences Window shows what will happen to files (whether they will be copied, deleted, or moved). For example, it will show you how many “collisions” have occurred. A collision is when a file in the source and destination differ but have the same name. In other words, the file is in both the source and destination but is modified in some way, perhaps by date, size etc. The differences window will help you decide what course of action to take based upon these results.


Differential Backup

Differential backups include backing up all files that have changed since the last full backup. Hence to restore all your data, all you would need are the last full and differential backups. The difference between differential and incremental backups is that incremental backups include only the files that have changed since the last full or incremental backup (see also Incremental Backup). In SyncBackPro, differential backups are possible using Fast Backup profiles.


Directory (another name for Folder)

In computing, a directory, catalog, or folder, is an entity in a file system which contains a group of files and other directories. A typical file system contains thousands of files, and directories help organize them by keeping related files together. A directory contained inside another directory is called a subdirectory (or sub-folder) of that directory. Together, the directories form a hierarchy, or tree structure.



Dynamic Link Library

DLL files are a method for storing a program’s components in separate files to the main program. DLL files typically have the extension .DLL and cannot be launched directly.



Domain Name System

When you type in a website address (e.g. into your browser, a domain name server (typically at your ISP) translates this into a numerical address, known as an IP Address, so your request can be routed to the correct site.



Internet Domain

An Internet Domain A 'logical' region of the Internet. People sometimes refer to them loosely as 'sites. Generally, a domain corresponds to one or more IP addresses or an area on a host. A domain is organized in levels. The top level identifies geographic or purpose commonality. The second level identifies a unique place within the top level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet (an IP address).


Windows Domain

In Windows NT and newer, a domain binds together a set of network resources (applications, printers, and so forth) for a group of users. The user only has to log in once to the domain to gain access to the resources, as opposed to having to authenticate to each one.



Downloading is typically the transfer of data from the Internet down to a computer. A download in its widest definition is the calling up of web pages from a browser. The more usual and focused use for the term download is when a user requests a file from a location on the Internet and makes a copy of that file onto their own computer (see also Upload).



Encryption is a process whereby information is scrambled so no unauthorized person can access it (see also EFS and TrueCrypt).



Encrypting File System

The Encrypting File System (EFS) is a file system driver that provides filesystem-level encryption in Microsoft Windows (2000 and later) operating systems, except Windows XP Home Edition, Windows Vista Basic, and Windows Vista Home Premium. The technology enables files to be transparently encrypted on NTFS file systems to protect confidential data from attackers with physical access to the computer.



Ethernet is one of the most popular standards for connecting PC's to form a local area network. It can be carried over a wide number of media, including copper, fiber-optics and wireless.



On computers using MSDOS or Windows, the last part of a filename, after a dot (period) is known as the extension These systems use the extension for indicating the type of information that the file contains. For example, the main program file for SyncBackPro is called SncBackPro.exe, the ‘exe’ indicating that it is an executable program. A file called ReadMe.txt is a text file.



Frequently Asked Questions

This is simply a compilation of frequently asked questions, the intention being that it should be the first port of call when a user is looking for answers to a problem.


Fast Backup

This is an option within SyncBackSE/Pro to greatly improve the performance of a backup profile by not scanning the destination first. This allows for other backup methods such as Incremental and Differential. It is recommended that the FAQ is read carefully before using this feature.



File Allocation Table

File Allocation Table (FAT, FAT12, FAT16 and FAT32) are file systems that were developed for MS-DOS and used in consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows 7. The FAT file system is considered relatively uncomplicated, and because of that, it is a popular format for floppy disks; moreover, it is supported by virtually all existing operating systems for personal computers, and because of that it is often used to share data between several operating systems booting on the same computer (a multi-boot environment). It is also used on removable memory cards and other similar devices. It is important to note that the different variants of FAT have their various limitations. For

example, the maximum file size you can store on a FAT system is 32MB, 2GB on FAT16 and 4GB on FAT32 (see also FAT32).



This is the last in the line of Microsoft’s FAT file systems. In order to overcome the volume size limit of FAT while still allowing memory-constrained DOS real-mode code to handle the format, Microsoft decided to implement a newer generation of FAT, known as FAT32, with 32-bit cluster numbers, of which 28 bits are currently used.


File Versioning

See Versioning



Firewalls are special devices, computers or computer programs that are installed on a network to prevent intruders from stealing files, snooping or disabling the host computer(s). In the home environment the firewall is usually a piece of software installed on the individual’s computer. In the corporate environment it is an ‘appliance’ type device that intercepts, blocks or allows, all data coming in and out of the whole organization.


Folder (another name for Directory)

A folder is a file container on a disk. Like a folder in a filing cabinet, you can store related files in the same folder to help organize your information.



File Transfer Protocol

The most widely-used method of downloading and uploading (getting and putting) files between two computers on the Internet. FTP is a simple network protocol based on Internet Protocol and also a term used when referring to the process of copying files when using FTP technology (see also AFTP and SFTP).



File Transfer Protocol Secure

FTPS (also known as FTP Secure and FTP-SSL) is an extension to the commonly used File Transfer Protocol (FTP) that adds support for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and the Secure Sockets Layer  (SSL) cryptographic protocols. FTPS should not be confused with the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), an incompatible secure file transfer subsystem for the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. It is also different from Secure FTP, the practice of tunneling FTP through an SSH connection. (see also SFTP and FTP).



Graphics Interchange Format

A type of image file format. It is the most common way to compress and store images for transfer over the Internet. It supports animations and allows a separate palette of 256 colors for each frame. Color palette limitations makes the GIF format unsuitable for reproducing color photographs, but it is well-suited for simpler images such as graphics or logos with solid areas of color (see also BMP and JPG and TIFF).


Group Profile

In the SyncBack series of products, a Group Profile is a collection (set) of Profiles. They allow you to run a number of profiles in parallel or a specific order.


Hash (as in CRC32 or MD5 value)

A hash function is a process that converts an input from a (typically) large domain into an output in a (typically) smaller range (the hash value, often a subset of the integers). Hash functions vary in the domain of their inputs and the range of their outputs and in how patterns and similarities of input data affect output data. It is typically used in the verification of file provenance – e.g. as a checksum to detect accidental data corruption during a download.



A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a type of hash function used to produce a checksum, which is a small number of bits, from a large block of data, such as a packet of network traffic or a block of a computer file, in order to detect errors in transmission or storage. A CRC is computed and appended before transmission or storage, and verified afterwards to confirm that no changes occurred.



In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely-used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. As an Internet standard, MD5 has been employed in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check the integrity of files.



1. A company that rents out space on the Internet to allow you to place web pages on it (see also Web Host)

2. The generic name for a computing device connected to a network, be it a LAN or the Internet.



A Hot-Key is the name given to a keyboard shortcut (also known as an accelerator key, shortcut key, or hot-key). It comprises a set of keyboard keys that when pressed simultaneously, perform a predefined task. Such a task could be done with the mouse (or other analog input such as a trackball), but would require much longer. Hence, they are a shortcut in that they save the user time.



Hypertext Mark-up Language

HTML is the common language that lies behind most web sites and their pages found on the on the World Wide Web. It defines a set of standards that enable the author to format a page in a variety of different styles and appearances.



Hypertext Transfer Protocol

This is the name given to the Internet protocol standard for defining the way computers transmit data on the Internet during a browser session. An exchange between your browser and web site will consist of an HTTP ‘conversation’ that finally results in you receiving and displaying web pages. Many Internet addresses begin http, for example:



Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

This protocol elevates HTTP to a secure level and is required for pages that require a SSL (secure sockets layer) connection.



A hypertext link is a special word or phrase in a web page that 'points' to another page. When clicked upon, you are taken to the page the link refers to, thus enabling navigation. Visually, links are typically underlined or contained within graphic elements.



A small image on the computer's display which represents some action or object.



Internet Message Access Protocol

This is an Internet protocol that defines and controls how emails are received by an email program from an email server that supports IMAP4. It is primarily used by users who don’t have permanent connections to their email server (delivery on demand). The ISP’s IMAP4 server receives and holds messages that have been sent to the user until their email program connects up and retrieves them (see also POP3 and SMTP).


IP Address

Internet Protocol Address

The 32-bit address defined by the Internet Protocol. Every resource on the Internet has a unique numerical IP address, represented in dotted decimal notation. IP addresses are the closest thing the Internet has to phone numbers. By calling that number you get connected to the computer that 'owns' that IP address (see also IP).


Incremental Backup

An Incremental Backup just backs up the data which has its Archive bit set, or has been changed since the last full or incremental backup (see also Differential Backup). In SyncBackPro, incremental backups are possible using Fast Backup profiles.



Internet Information Centre

InterNIC is the combined name for the regulatory body that provide registration, information, and database services to the Internet.



A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software and resources that you would find on the public Internet, but which is only for internal use.



Internet Protocol

An industry standard, connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol used as the network layer in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. It has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses.


ISO (file format)

International Organization for Standardization

An ISO file is an archive file (also known as a disk image) of an optical disc such as a CD or DVD. The term ISO has been somewhat hijacked simply because the format is defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO image files typically have a file extension of .ISO.



Internet Service Provider

Primarily a company that gives you access to the Internet, but will normally offer other services such as email, website hosting and online databases.



Java Archive

A file format used to bundle all components required by a Java applet. JAR files simplify the downloading of applets since all components (.class files, images, sounds, etc.) can be packaged into a single file.



A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java is an object-oriented language similar to C++, but simplified to eliminate language features that cause common programming errors. Many websites rely upon the applications it produces, and whilst being a predominantly Internet-based language, it can also be found in devices such as mobile phones.



Joliet is a file system extension designed by Microsoft for storing long filenames on optical media. It extends the previous standard (ISO9660 Level 1) which was only able to store filenames with 8.3 filenames (an 8 character filename followed by a 3 character extension).



Java Virtual Machine

A self-contained operating environment that behaves like a separate computer and is designed to minimize the effects of badly-behaved programs. For example, Java applets run in a Java virtual machine (JVM) that has no access to the host operating system.


Java Bean

JavaBeans are reusable software components for Java that can be manipulated visually in a programming tool.



Not to be confused or associated in any way with Java, JavaScript is a scripting language which is used to embed small programs such as pop-up windows into the HTML code of a webpage.



Joint Photographic Experts Group

A standard type of image file commonly found on the Web. It uses a variable compression technique to reduce the size of the file and is especially suitable for photographic images (see also BMP, GIF and TIFF).


Junction Point (also called a Reparse Point)

In computing, a NTFS junction point (JP) is a type of NTFS reparse point in the NTFS file system. It requires a NTFS 5.0 file system, which can be created (or converted from a FAT partition) under Windows 2000 or newer. It can be used in a similar way to symbolic links - allowing you to create a link to a folder that is, for most intents and purposes, the same as the folder itself. This has many benefits over a windows shortcut (.lnk) file, such as allowing you to access files within the shortcut via explorer, the console, etc.




A kilobyte is a unit of memory capacity equal to 1024 bytes. It isn't 1000 bytes as might be expected because computers tend to favor sizes that are a power of two (1024 is two to the power of 10).



Local Area Network

A LAN is a Local Area Network allowing several connected computers and/or peripherals to work together and share resources. The various devices are typically connected using a high speed link (10mb/s or greater) over cabled or wireless Ethernet.



A subset of a user's environment that defines conventions for a specified culture, such as time formatting, numeric formatting, monetary formatting, and character classification, conversion, and collation.


Locked files

A file becomes locked when an application opens it for writing. SyncBackSE/Pro is able to backup these files by utilizing Windows’ VSS (see also VSS).



A user or program logs in by providing a user name and password to gain access to a restricted area of a network, web site or computer.



Software which is specifically designed to disrupt, damage, or gain authorized access to a computer system.




A megabyte is a unit of memory capacity equal to 1,048,576 bytes. It isn't 1,000,000 bytes as might be expected because computers tend to favor sizes that are a power of two (1024 is two to the power of 10).



The organization accepting credit card or other e-payments for the goods or services they provide.



MoDification TiMe [of a file]

When communicating with an FTP server, this command returns the last-modified time of the given file. A few types of FTP server allow setting the last-modified time of a file using this command (see also MFMT).




MFMT is a command used in FTP to modify the last modification time of a folder or file on the destination file system.



Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

An extension to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) that allows different forms of data including video, audio, or binary data to attach to e-mail, without requiring translation into plain ASCII text.



Mirroring is the process whereby the source is copied in its entirety to the destination. During this process, extraneous files are also deleted from the destination until it is identical to the source.



MLSD is a machine readable format for directory listings. MLST and MLSD are FTP commands intended to provide detailed, standardized directory listings across different server platforms.


MODE Z Compression

Mode Z compression compresses files-on-the-fly as they are being transferred from the local computer to the remote computer and remote to local, saving bandwidth and improving transfer time.



Motion Picture Experts Group

MPG is a common video format for movies and videos, especially those on DVD. Any computer with DVD playing facilities will be able to play MPG files (see also AVI).



Network Attached Storage

A NAS device is a server that runs an operating system specifically designed for the storage and serving of files Network-attached storage is accessible directly on the network through protocols such as TCP/IP. Think of it as a dedicated Windows computer that serves little or no other role than to store and serve files (see also Server).



Network Address Translation

NAT is a technique that hides a private IP address behind a single IP address in another, often public address space. It is commonly used in home ADSL broadband routers for adding an extra layer of protection from the Internet.



Two or more computers working together so they can exchange information with each other (see also LAN).


Network Drive

See Share



New Technology File System

The NTFS File System is the standard file system of Windows NT and its descendants. Windows version 95, 98, 98SE and ME, cannot natively read NTFS file systems, although utilities do exist for this purpose. NTFS replaced Microsoft's previous FAT file system, used in MS-DOS and early versions of Windows. NTFS has several improvements over FAT such as improved support for meta-data and the use of advanced data structures to improve performance, reliability and disk space utilization plus additional extensions such as security access control lists and file system journaling.



Online Service Provider

An OSP offers specific proprietary content in addition to the usual World Wide Web and Internet access, for example, AOL.


Payment Service Provider

A third party service provider directly linked with credit-card authorization network for the acceptance of credit cards and e-payments for orders placed online.



Pretty Good Privacy

Software that encrypts important information so it can be sent over the Internet securely. PGP offers strong encryption and is available free to home users.



Portable Document Format

Adobe® Portable Document Format (PDF) is the cross-platform standard for electronic document distribution worldwide. Adobe PDF is a universal file format that preserves all the fonts, formatting, graphics, and color of any source document, regardless of the application and platform used to create it.



Post Office Protocol 3

This is an Internet protocol that defines and controls how emails are received by an email program from a POP3 server. It is primarily used by users who don’t have permanent connections to their email server (delivery on demand). The ISP’s POP3 server receives and holds messages that have been sent to the user until their email program connects up and retrieves them (see also IMAP4 and SMTP).



In TCP/IP communications, devices communicate with each other over certain port numbers. Each side of a TCP connection has an associated 16-bit port number assigned by the sending or receiving application. For example, web pages are sent over port 80 (HTTP), FTP communications are sent over port 21.


Profile (as in a SyncBack/SE/Pro profile)

A Profile defines and stores information about the folders or files you would like to backup or synchronize using SyncBack/SE/Pro. Once you've created a Profile you'll be able to click a single button on the toolbar to carry out a specified task in the future. They can be edited to fine-tune any type of backup process.


Protected Files

Protected files are critical system files that are installed as part of Windows (for example, files with a .dll, .exe, .ocx, and .sys extension and some True Type fonts). Windows uses a system to verify if protected system files are the correct Microsoft versions. If a program tries to replace these files, Windows will restore the original ones.



Protocol is the term used to describe the standard for communication between computers. If two computers have a protocol in common, then they should be able to communicate even if they are completely different. There are a range of standard protocols to cover the different types of communication application. For example: DNS (naming); FTP (file transfer); HTTP (World-Wide Web documents); NNTP (news); POP, SMTP (e-mail).


Proxy Server

A proxy server is a computer network service which allows clients to make indirect network connections to other network services. A client connects to the proxy server, then requests a connection, file, or other resource available on a different server. The proxy provides the resource, possibly by connecting to the specified server, or by serving it from a cache. In some cases, the proxy may alter the client's request or the server's response for various purposes. One of the benefits of such a scheme is in the speeding up of web content to the client.


Public Domain

If a work is in the 'public domain' it is generally freely distributable although at times companies may have rights over distribution.



A type of malicious software designed to block access to a computer system until a sum of money is paid. See also virus and malware.


Redirect URL

A Web site address that when called redirects the user to a different URL. For example when a user enters into their web browser they will be automatically redirected to



Resilient File System

A new file system introduced by Microsoft with Windows Server 2012. It is based upon the NTFS file system but is not a replacement for it. ReFS is typically used to store large amounts of data, e.g. to be used with file or archive servers.



The Registry is a storage area in Windows that keeps a record of nearly every Windows setting you are able to change, plus all the user-invisible settings that it needs to keep track of the operating system itself. For example, your desktop settings, such as the screen saver, screen color and background image are all stored here so that when you log in to Windows these will be applied as per the settings you previously defined. It should not be manually

edited unless you are confident you know what you are doing.


Regular Expression

A regular expression (abbreviated as regexp, regex, or regxp, with plural forms regexps, regexes, or regexen) is a string that describes or matches a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. Regular expressions are used by many text editors and utilities to search and manipulate bodies of text based on certain patterns.


Relational Database

A relational database is one whose structure is made up of numerous separate but linked tables. The key advantage of a relational database is that duplication of entries is significantly reduced or even eliminated, allowing for the efficient management of larger databases.


Removable Media

This is a type of storage device that may be physically inserted and removed from the computer, assuming the operating system allows it. Examples of this are: USB memory sticks, external hard drives, CDs, DVD’s or tapes. These can be especially useful if simple offsite backups are required.


Reparse Point

Reparse points provide a way to extend the NTFS file system by adding extra information to the directory entry, so a file system filter can interpret how the operating system will treat the data. This allows the creation of junction points and NTFS symbolic links. They also can act as hard links, but aren't limited to point to files on the same volume: they can point to directories on any local volume.



A Restore copies files from a previous backup on the Destination back to the Source, such as in the event of a file being accidentally deleted. It is the opposite of a Backup therefore no files are copied from the Source to the Destination.



Samba is a piece of free software that allows file and print sharing between computers running Windows and computers running UNIX. It is widely used on NAS servers to provide compatibility with Windows clients (see also NAS).


Schedule (as in scheduling using Windows Task Scheduler)

SyncBack/SE/Pro interfaces with the Windows Task Scheduler to allow you to run profiles automatically at certain times, e.g. run a backup profile every day at 5am. On Windows XP you can access the task scheduler via the Start menu (All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks).



Scripting is a method of automating or tailoring a process by means of a sequence of commands contained within a script file. SyncBackPro may be controlled in this way, negating the need for manual user input. This is particularly useful where repetitive tasks are called for, or functionality needs to be extended or changed.


Secure Credit Card Transactions

When goods are bought on the Internet, there are two main systems which are used to transfer credit card details securely: SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and SET (Secure Electronic Transactions). These processes encrypt the transaction details in order for them to be sent securely over the internet and then decrypt them at the sales point.



A network or file share is a resource on a computer network, typically allowing multiple computer users on the same network to have a centralized space on which to store files (documents, spreadsheets, etc) and share amongst each other.



A server is a powerful, high-storage capacity computer or device on a network that contains and publishes resources, such as file shares and printers for users to utilize. Its only role is to serve and is not used as a traditional computer, thus keeping its responsiveness and availability high at all times.



A servlet is an applet that runs on a server. The term usually refers to a Java applet that runs within a Web server environment. This is analogous to a Java applet that runs within a Web browser environment.



Secure File Transfer Protocol

A secure version of FTP: the most widely-used method of downloading and uploading (getting and putting) files between two computers on the Internet. It makes use of the SSH protocol to secure the data (see also FTP and FTPS).



In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest – typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long.



SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).[3] They are built using the Merkle–Damgård structure, from a one-way compression function itself built using the Davies–Meyer structure from a (classified) specialized block cipher. SHA-2 includes significant changes from its predecessor, SHA-1. The SHA-2 family consists of six hash functions with digests (hash values) that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256.



Shareware is software distributed on the basis of an honor system. Most shareware is delivered free of charge, but the author usually requests that you pay a fee if you like the program and use it regularly or after a specified trial period.



Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology

This technology is built in to many hard disk drives and if monitored by software, provides an early warning of impending failure, based upon various status indicators.


Intelligent Synchronization

SyncBackSE/Pro uses this method to copy files in both directions, whilst keeping a history of where files were during the last synchronization. This allows for much finer control over what actions to take based on what has changed, and also allows it to detect changes such as the file only being modified in the source or destination (see also Synchronize).



Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

The Internet protocol responsible for specifying how two mail systems interact and the format of control messages they exchange to transfer mail. Most ISP's will have one of more SMTP servers that receive and forward emails from other SMTP servers around the world. From a home user point of view they send email using SMTP and receive it using POP3.


Sparse file

A file containing large sections of data composed only of zeros, which is marked as such in the NTFS. The file system saves disk space by only allocating as many ranges on disk as are required to completely reconstruct the non-zero data. When an attempt is made to read in the non-allocated portions of the file (also known as holes), the file system automatically returns zeros to the caller.



Structured Query Language

SQL Server is Microsoft's relational database management system (RDBMS). It uses a client/server model whereby the data access logic is executed on the server. This is as opposed to a file-based database like Microsoft Access where queries are executed on the user’s PC.



Secure Sockets Layer

SSL is a process encrypts the channel between a Web browser and Web server to ensure the privacy and reliability of data. It is used extensively in online banking and purchases.



The Synchronize operation is when files are copied to and from the source and destination. The aim of this process is to maintain identical copies of the data on both machines, regardless of which side the data changed. One of the caveats of using this method is the possibility of collisions (conflicts). For example if the same file is changed on both sides SyncBack will prompt the user for a decision, or it can be configured for an automated action for convenience. After synchronization, the source and destination should contain the same files and directories, i.e. are a mirror of each other.



Transport Control Program/Internet protocol

TCP/IP is the well-defined and almost exclusive system of protocols used for communication over the Internet. Whereas the IP packet portion of the protocol is connectionless and only makes a best-effort attempt to communicate, TCP makes sure the packets have arrived and that the message is complete.



Tagged image file format

A type of image file format. TIFF files may contain multiple images, and support a variety of color depths and may use lossless compression, making the file sizes a good deal bigger than the same with JPG formatting. There are several variations and cross-compatibility is sometimes a problem (see also BMP and JPG).



TLS is a cryptographic protocol that supersedes SSL. Like SSL it provide high security and data integrity for communications between computers (see also SSL).


Tray Icon

Tray icons appear in the Windows System Tray (Taskbar corner). This is the small bar at the bottom right-hand area of your screen. It is normally used to show the status of "utility" type programs running in the background. Usually, if you double-click or right-click them, they'll open up or bring up a menu. SyncBack can be minimized or ‘closed’ to appear in this area.



TrueCrypt is a proprietary software application used for real-time on-the-fly encryption (see also EFS and Encryption).



Universal Disk Format

UDF is a standardized common file system for all optical media, e.g. CDs and DVDs. The format is designed to make a common file system for read-only and re-writable optical media.



User Account Control

User Account Control is a security component in Windows Vista and newer. UAC elevates the user’s account privileges thus enabling them to perform common tasks as non-administrators (called standard users in Windows Vista) as administrators without having to switch users, log off, or use Run As.



Universal Naming Convention or Uniform Naming Convention

A UNC specifies a common syntax to describe the location of a network resource, such as a shared file, directory, or printer. The Windows UNC syntax is as follows:




Additionally, one can connect a drive letter to the UNC for ease of access in Windows, but the raw UNC name can be used to access resources in the same location just as well.



Unicode is a character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium. The aim of the standard is to provide universal way of encoding characters of any language, regardless of the computer system, or platform, being used. The system achieves this by using two bytes (16 bits) for every character rather than the one byte (8 bits) as used by ASCII.



An old but venerable operating system very widely used on medium sized, multi-user servers, and in top-of-the-range desktop computers. Its characteristics are reliability and efficient use of computer hardware but some variations have a somewhat arcane user command-line interface. Most modern versions now have a graphical user interface that allows mouse input, but it is still the domain of the technically proficient. Modern day incarnations now include Linux and all its desktop variants.



Uploading is the process of sending bulk information from your computer to another computer or server on the Internet. For example if you use a photo sharing website, you are uploading your files to them (see also Download).



Universal Resource Locator

A URL is the technical term for ‘Web site address’. This is usually the address of a website or document on the Web (e.g.



Usenet is short for User's Network. It is a collection of thousands of online bulletin boards residing on the Internet. Each bulletin board is arranged in a hierarchical fashion and contain discussion groups (or newsgroups) dedicated to a myriad of topics. Messages are posted and responded to by readers either as public or private emails.


User Interface (or UI)

That part of a computer program that controls interaction with the user. For example, in Windows, you are presented with a Start button, task bar, desktop, system tray and moveable mouse pointer. This whole experience is termed the User Interface. Another example is the 2BrightSparks series of products, which strive to give you the most attractive and useable User Interface possible.



In computer languages, a variable is simply a name assigned to a mathematical value, text, or multitude of other objects that exist within that environment. Windows has a set of predefined variables that the operating system uses to reference all sorts of values (type in set at a command prompt for an example). SyncBackSE/Pro use a range of variables that can be used in the Source and Destination settings for a profile when scripting a backup task.



When this SyncBackSE/Pro feature is switched on, a backup version of a file is automatically created before it is moved, replaced or deleted. If one of these operations subsequently turned out to be a mistake then you can restore one of the previously saved versions.



VHD (Virtual Hard Disk) is a file format which represents a virtual hard disk drive (HDD). It may contain what is found on a physical HDD, such as disk partitions and a file system, which in turn can contain files and folders. It is typically used as the hard disk of a virtual machine.



A virus is an unwanted, malicious piece of software that is designed to reproduce itself and adversely affect data on your computer or its performance. New viruses are written and distributed around the Internet every day by unprincipled persons. If your computer is connected to the Internet you should always use Anti-Virus software and a firewall to combat these. Also ensure that it is up-to-date with your publisher’s latest anti-virus definitions. You should also download and install the latest Microsoft critical updates as they are published. Use the Security Center in Control Panel to configure your system appropriately. See also malware and ransomware.



Volume Shadow Copy Service

Volume Shadow Copy Service is a background service in Windows XP and newer that provides a method of creating snapshots of files and directories at predefined points in time. The service runs at the block-level, not the file level which means it is able to backup open or locked files. These snapshots can then be used to restore data files and folders from a previous point in time. It is used by the Windows Backup utility and of course SyncBackSE/Pro.



A WAV file is an audio format file and denoted by the extension .wav. It typically contains an uncompressed PCM (Pulse Coded Modulation) audio bit stream unlike MP3, which has various stages of compression to achieve smaller file sizes relative to the raw version.


Web Host

This is company that rents out space on the Internet to allow you to place your website on it. They provide the hardware, servers, backbone connections, backup system etc. where your data is housed. They also make sure your site is available to site visitors at all times.



A webmaster is someone who manages a web site. They make decisions about its content, style and administration. Large sites may employ additional content directors or editors. On smaller sites, webmasters may make these decisions and accept news releases directly.


Web Site

A Web Site is a collection of web pages, graphical images, videos and other digital resources that are hosted on one or more web servers. It is usually (but not always - see Intranet) accessible via the Internet. The content is constructed into a web page (normally an HTML document) that the web server sends to the user's web browser for display. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the homepage. The URL's of these pages are organized into a structured hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control the orderly navigation of the whole site.



Wide Area Network

A WAN is network which covers a large geographical area. A well-designed WAN has some form of redundancy built in to allow for link faults between, or with, the various nodes. In the event of such a fault, the traffic will be re-routed through another node, thus maintaining resilience. The best-known wide area network is the Internet.



WinRAR is a shareware file archiver and data compression utility. It is one of the few applications that is able to create native RAR archives, because of its proprietary encoding algorithm (see also BWT, BZip2, Compression and ZIP).



The XCRC is a CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) algorithm to calculate the hash value of the file being copied. This value can be used to verify the integrity of the file transfers. If the CRC values of the local and remote file match, both files are considered equal and therefore the transfer is successful.



UNIX has traditionally been a command-line, text-based operating system and can be daunting for novices. For people seeking an easier way to use UNIX, X-Windows is a standard for providing it with a windowed user interface, much in the same way of Microsoft Windows. The ability to divide and order the screen into windows is an important feature in the provision of a graphical user interface, as is the use of a pointing device. X-Windows provides both in an effort to ease the learning UNIX curve.


Zip Compression, Zip File

Zip Compression is a method of compressing one of more files and folders into a single file with the aim of reducing the overall file size. This file can then be emailed, transmitted by FTP or copied onto removable media for the recipient to unzip (uncompress) it. Text files, such as Word and Notepad are highly compressible, as are other Microsoft Office documents. Photos and binary files are less so, but will nearly always compress a certain amount. SyncBack is able to backup data to and restore from a ZIP file. There are also a wide range of 3rd party tools that will unzip these files, ranging from WinZip to the command line PKUnzip (see also BWT, Compression and BZip2).


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